~art theory 101~ The
Conservation of SpaceTime: The role of the Higgs, graviton and photon bosons
in defining Dark Matter = Dark Energy (the inverse of) in the fractal
Universe 
The
Conservation of SpaceTime
~ The role of the Higgs, graviton and photon bosons in defining Dark Matter = Dark Energy (the inverse of) in the fractal Universe ~
Copyright© 2008,
Reginald Brooks. All rights reserved

NOTE: This short, update supplement presupposes
that the reader has prepared her/himself by reviewing the earlier works upon
which this work is based...especially "DarkDarkLight: Dark Matter = Dark
Energy (the inverse of)" and "The History of the Universe in Scalar
Graphics." Works to review include:
"Naughty Physics (a.k.a. The LUFE Matrix )"
"The History of the Universe in Scalar Graphics"
"The LUFE Matrix Supplement: Examples and Proofs"
"The LUFE Matrix Supplement: References"
"The LUFE Matrix: Infinite Dimensions"
"The
History of the Universe – update – The Big Void"
"Quantum
Gravity ... by the book"
Introduction
Specifically, we will be providing some simple visual portraits of the elementary particles. These diagrammatic illustrations will allow us to “see” how the concepts might in fact play out. Of course, what we are doing is illustrating the invisible …namely spacetime (SpaceTime=ST) itself and the matter and fields that are to populate it. As it will hopefully be clear, ST and the matter and fields are integrally interrelated …one defining the other and it is in the ultimate conservation of ST that results in and from the individual conservations of energy, force, momentum and charge. Any successful merging of the very large (general relativity) and the very small (quantum mechanics) into a theory of Quantum Gravity will have to address these fundamentals of ST.
The concepts, while spread across all the papers cited above, have been specifically excerpted from
“Dark
Matter = Dark Energy (the inverse of):
The
Conservation of Spacetime by The Conservation of Force”
(from parts IIIV)
In
addition, there will be specific and/or direct quotes from the original “LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose,” (copyright
1985, Reginald Brooks) book that launched it all …including The LUFE
Matrix. The book provides a complete and detailed look at the
geometry of ST and the fields, energy and matter that occupy it. A full text
and mathematical presentation are fully supplemented with some 137 handdrawn
illustrations in pen/brush and ink.
While
being beyond the scope of this present white paper, it is the author’s
intention to bring the entire book online …as it becomes digitized. A table of
contents is presented here at this link: “LUFE:
The Layman’s Unified Field ExposePreface and Table of Contents.”
This
provides a detailed “portrait” that accounts for the mass, charge, spin
…as well as lepton, baryon and isospin numbers, spinor rotation, and the
motion, momentum and energy of the ST particles.
Appendix
Set II in LUFE brings together five focus papers on Fundamental Constants:
1.)
Mass
2.)
Ratios
3.)
Charge
4.)
The LUFE Matrix
5.)
The Atom
that
were completed in 198607. They provide important insights into the LUFE model
and a preread of these may benefit many readers …especially the paper on The Atom: Mass Variation in the Electron by Photon
Absorption and The Inverse Square Law. This work is directly referenced
below.
The
purpose of this white paper is to preempt that detailed look, providing a big
picture overview …spotlighting the role of symmetry and asymmetry in providing
for the presence of the entire Universe, including that which is hidden and
unseen.
The
overview will hopefully show how the photon, graviton and specifically the
Higgs boson provides the allimportant interface between the observed realty of
our Universe and the subPlanck Event Horizon vacuum continuum that lies
beneath. This interface, in accounting for the checks and balances of the
observable Universe (and all the conservation laws that reside therein), does
so by being the gatekeeper of the ST …insuring that there is always a
Conservation of ST through the Conservation of the Force …and thus the energy…
that it contains.
It
is not much of a reach after applying the principles described herein, to “see”
how coercing two oppositelyhanded fermionic electron units upon a metallic …or
better yet, magnetic …substrate, under conditions which essentially trick them
into a combined quantum state that mimics that of boson, that superconductivity
shall follow. After all, bosons do not feel the restraint or resistance that
ordinary fermions obeying the Pauli exclusion principle do.
(click for larger image)
In Figure 1., a
simplified diagram of the SpaceTime (ST) axis as described in “LUFE: The
Layman’s Unified Field Expose,” copyright 1985, Reginald Brooks. a) Depicts the
horizontal magnetic charge vector, negative to positive, left to right; b)
depicts the vertical electric charge vector, negative to positive, bottom to
top; c) shows the course of the magnetic charge vector as it pulses out and
back to its singularity, or origin; d) shows the electric charge vector as it
pulses out of its singularity and back. The singularity for each ST unit
represents that point below our normal sense of dimension (1D/2D/3D,…)that we
can see and/or measure… that is, it lies below the Planck Event Horizon,
existing in the interconnected subST continuum below. To note is that to
satisfy the strict accounting needs of Nature, including but not limited to the
constancy of the speed of light and the requirement to establish a net integral
charge (electric, as well as magnetic) expression (0, 1, 2), ST unit pulses out
(and back) along its particular vector to express its charge, spin and mass.
For the horizontal magnetic spin and the vertical electric charge pulses the
vectors are additive in that equal and opposite vectors will cancel (symmetry),
while unequal (asymmetry) vectors will provide a net expression. “There is no
net charge expression without accompanying mass expression, while there can be
the opposite, a massive ST unit with zero net charge. Asymmetry of the charge
and spin vectors is a requirement for net expression of these parameters. The
mass forming vector is not really a separate structural vector in the same
sense as the charge and spin vectors. Rather it is manifested as the result of
the particular combination(s) of the other two and in the end acts just like a
vector in the sense that if those combinations produce a composite asymmetry
mass is expressed (like a localized knot in the ST field)”(from “Dark Matter =
Dark Energy”).
(click for larger image)
Figure 2. Two “portraits” of the photon ST unit: In a) we have a leftright handed photon; in b) a rightleft handed photon (reading left to right). Notice that in this snapshot of either photon, we are seeing it at its full extension of its pulse generation, extended fully outward symmetrically along all four negative and positive vector paths. The charge vectors are equal and opposite and thus add up to a zero net expression. The horizontal spin vectors, however, are spinning in the same direction, each additively contributing ½ unit of spin angular momentum (spin) for a net expression of spin = 1 for both the leftright and rightleft handed photons. One can see that if a leftright and rightleft handed photon were to occupy the same ST, as bosons are want to do, the “net” expression of spin, as well as charge and mass, would be zero, giving us the mother of all ST unit particles, the Higgs boson. On the other hand, combining either two leftright handed, or two rightleft handed, photons would give the massless, chargeless, spin=2 graviton. Such constructive and destructive interference of ST unit photons (or photonlike “matter waves”) occurs routinely from each and every ST unit as it pulses in to and out of existence from its singularity, forming as it does the ST field itself.
(click for larger image)
Figure 3. The “portrait” of the: a) lefthanded electron and its associated antineutrino; b) righthanded electron and its associated antineutrino; c) lefthanded positron and its associated neutrino; and, d) righthanded positron and its associated neutrino. The positron is the electron’s antiparticle. The electron’s antineutrino antiparticle is the neutrino. Note that, in all cases, the antineutrino or neutrino, while generated simultaneously with the pulse generation of the electron or positron, respectively, is itself a separate ST unit …one without a vertical charge vector component (and with little or no mass).
(click for larger image)
Figure 4. Quarks are fermion ST units with nonintegral, fractional charge. The proton is composed of two “up” quarks with a +2/3 vertical charge (and a –1/3 horizontal charge) and one “down” quark with a –1/3 vertical charge (and a +2/3 horizontal charge). Together, they pulse propagate to form a ST unit with a net +1 vertical charge (and a net 0 horizontal charge). The proton comes in either left or righthanded forms. Rotation (180 degrees) gives their antiparticles. Spinor rotation generates the neutron ST units.
(click for larger image)
Figure 5.The photon, like all ST units, pulse propagates into, and out of, existence. In doing so it generates a secondary ST matter wave(s) which radiate out in all directions. These ST matter waves continue to pulse propagate forming a waveform pattern which can interfere …constructively and/or destructively with other waveforms from other ST matter waves formed from other ST units.
The constructive interference of these photonlike
matter waves generates the graviton. The deconstructive interference forms the Higgs
boson.
(click for larger image)
Figure 6.When the perfect equal and opposite symmetry of
the Higgs boson …which resides at the interface of the visible and invisible
view of the Universe …is broken, the photon is generated. The photon has only
slightly lessperfect symmetry than the Higgs boson. Its asymmetry lies in its
horizontal spin angular momentum vector. It now has a net spin of +1. This,
along with its rotation, allows it to move a net of one quantum unit of ST for
every pulse propagation of its photon ST unit form. Thus arises the
Conservation of the Velocity of Light and from it the Conservation of ST. Should two similar photons overlap, a graviton is
temporarily born. Should two opposite photons overlap, a Higgs boson is reborn.
Bosons, a special group of subatomic particles, are
responsible for the expression of force. They do it by being the ambassadors of
change from one particle to another and thus are known as “exchange quanta/vectors.”
For each of the four known forces there is an
associated exchange quanta: the graviton (boson) exchanges curvature
information (force) between all forms of energy (matter and fields).
The photon (boson) exchanges electromagnetic charge
information (force) between particles (and probably fields as well) that carry
a net charge expression.
The graviton and photon bosons have very similar
properties that define them …the only difference being that the photon has
spin=1, while the graviton has spin=2. Both are massless, chargeless particles
whose “force” effect falls off with the square of the distance traveled
(Inverse Square Law).
The weak nuclear force, finds its expressive vector
needs to be of a relatively short range between the protons and neutrons of the
nucleon. The W^{}, W^{+} and Z^{0} bosons are
generated as massive boson particles …thus sublight speed and a short span
(distance) of action. Through an elaborate process with mesons, these
shortlived bosons mediate the net attraction/repulsion force between the
elements of the nucleus.
And of course, the gluon bosons hold the quark
groupings together forming the strong nuclear force.
Common to all bosons is the property that they do not
obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) …a principle obeyed by all other known
particles, collectively known as fermions. The PEP prevents likeminded
particles …particles identical in their core ID of mass, charge and spin …to
occupy the same quantum space. All such particles …fermions …have a net spin
expression of 1/2, 3/2, …and do obey the PEP.
All bosons have a net spin spin of 0, 1, 2, …. All
bosons can occupy the same quantum state. They can overlap,
overlay and build up and down adjusting the density of their vector force
expression as conditions warrant.
As
proposed earlier in “Dark
Matter = Dark Energy (the inverse of): The
Conservation of Spacetime by The Conservation of Force,” a
fifth force …and importantly, a conserved property …is that of force, and
through it, ST itself. The Conservation of SpaceTime is a universal, conserved
property intimately …indivisibly …adjoined to the overall Conservation of
Energy. It does so by the conserved property of force. As the fifth force,
force maintains the ebb and flow of energy, which is itself an expression of
the ST continuum.
Another
way of looking at this is as follows: The ST continuum is the total energy of
the universe. All matter and fields …all energy …is an expression of this total
energy. In areas of high energy density, the ST continuum is denser as well.
Wavelengths are smaller, frequencies are higher, clocks run slower (remember
that the velocity of light is constant). In areas of low energy density, the reverse
is true. The Conservation of Force …which serves this overall Conservation of
SpaceTime …brokers the energy distribution from one area to another. It must
ultimately also be conserved because there can be no net gain (or loss) of
energy.
It
does by the Higgs boson …and its multipotential offspring, the photon and
graviton bosons.
And
it is not the supermassive Higgs boson that the old Standard
Theory predicted years ago. Rather the Higgs boson is a perfectly symmetrical,
massless, chargeless, and spinless progenitor particle. From it, all other
particles, including the photon and graviton, can be derived by the appropriate
break(s) in its inherent perfect symmetry.
The
ST continuum is not a grid upon which the elements of the Universe are
embedded. The ST continuum is all the elements of the
Universe…all the energy distributed as matter and fields …and as such, is a
conserved entity. ST is created over and over with each pulsegeneration of its
collective energy …matter and fields.
We
know that energy is conserved …as is momentum, angular momentum and charge. The
distribution of ST, while ultimately being true to the overall Conservation of
Energy, can be thought as micromanaged through “force” and the vector bosons
that mediate it. Obviously …overall …the Conservation of Energy, Charge and
Momentum absolutely requires the Conservation of Force as well.
The
density distribution of ST …that is on one hand the high density ST corresponds
with high energy, be it mass, charge or spin of the matter or fields, including
all that is dark matter, and, conversely on the other hand, all that is called
the expansive dark energy …and also mediated by force vector bosons …resulting
in low density ST distribution …is not without strict accounting procedures
intact.
The
bosons, but especially the Higgs boson and its close relatives the photon and
graviton bosons, can concentrate the ST in a given area of great density here,
but only if the ST over there is expanded …and it will be through
the Conservation Laws …affecting a lower density (read: expanding ST). Thus,
there is a Conservation of ST mediated by a Conservation of Force that
ultimately always answers to the overall Conservation of Energy.
F∆s = E
In
our “seen” world, ST is represented by the photon and it lightspeed velocity,
c. In our “unseen” hidden ST continuum world, ST is represented by the Higgs
boson. The Higgs boson can transform into any matter or field particle in the
ST continuum and then be realized, or “seen” in our visible world.
Fig.7a. Simplified LUFE
Matrix
As shown in the simplified view of The LUFE Matrix
(Fig.7a.), the whole dynamics of the ST continuum is encapsulated by the 5x5
diagrammatic grid, and specifically to the diagonals of c, c^{2}, c^{3},
c^{4} and c^{5}.
Translated, lightspeed, c:
c = velocity of light
c^{2} = velocity of light^{2}
=
potential difference in volts
=
charge/distance
=
mass/distance (displacement)
c^{3} = velocity of light^{3}
= flow of
charge in amps
=
momentum/distance = charge/time
c^{4} = velocity of light^{4}
= force
=
energy/distance
=
momentum/time
= power/c
c^{5} = velocity of light^{5}
= power
= volts x
amps
= force x
c
=
energy/time
The Conservation of Energy, of course, translates ultimately to the Conservation of Energy over time, or E/t, and that equals power. That is, power is energy per time (energy per second). Overall, Conservation of Energy means Conservation of Power.
As concluded in the earlier papers referred above,
the Conservation Laws do not stand alone, independent of each other. Rather,
they are completely tied together …interconnected. The Conservation of Charge,
Momentum, Angular Momentum and Force are all tied ultimately to the Conservation
of Energy. And the ultimate accounting for the Conservation of Energy occurs
over time and thus encompasses the Conservation of Power (Conservation of
Energy/time). While always a constant, the velocity of light defines the
fundamentals of that conservation dynamic. And it, times the force, equals the
power.
Fc
= P
as,
FS = E, and P = E/t and c = space/time = s/t
[Parts
excerpted from “LUFE: Appendix Set II”]
Fundamental Constants: 5. The Atom
“Mass Variation in the Electron by
Photon Absorption and The Inverse Square Law” pages 2933, 1986
The entire Big Bang scenario may be pictured as a
series of quantum jumps of expansion, analogous to that in the atom. That
expansion is at least in part do to mass concealment by photons, suggests that
the Big Bang is to be characterized by a series of quantum expansions in which
each successive level requires a less energetic photon to conceal mass.
In the stellar furnace, the highenergy photons
conceal much of the electrons (and possibly proton and neutron) mass as
expansion occurs during the fusion process of the stars life cycle. Later, when
a star sheds energy in a supernova, its subsequent gravitational collapse is
markedly enhanced if the e^{}/p^{+}/n^{0} which remain
have fewer and less energetic photons around to conceal the full expression of
their mass.
I would suggest that cosmic expansion be looked at
in terms of the inverse square law as it is aptly demonstrated in the atom.
Successive cosmic “freezings” of the radiant energy in which the universe is
bathed occurs discontinuously, thus accounting for the major division between
the radiationdominated and the matterdominated eras of the early universe.
During the initial radiationdominated era, most of the energy of the universe
was tied up in energetic photons (as well as in neutrinos and antineutrinos).
Within this era, matter/antimatter ST units were formed and annihilated,
eventually leading to a plasma state in which free electrons, protons and
neutrons, as well as protonneutron nuclei, exist amongst the high energy
photons.
Coincidental with the transfer of the bulk of the
energy as radiation to the bulk of the energy as matter, the universe became
transparent as free electrons bound themselves to nuclei to form atoms. The
question is, can photons conceal the mass of any particle, or only electrons?
I would suggest that this major transition is no
coincidence, but is linked to the electronphoton mass concealment described
for the atom. Because free electrons accelerated by magnetic fields radiate
light, the same mechanism for photon absorption and emission is most likely
operable, thus free electrons in the plasma state, as in the
radiationdominated era, probably had much of their gravitational pull
neutralized as they absorbed massconcealing photons continuously. This
enhanced expansion and expansion means cooling as the wavelengths are
increased. Less energetic photons result in less mass concealment of the
electron and subsequently the dual effect was to favor the atomic structure,
the prerequisite for galaxy formation.
Now, if photon can also conceal part, or all, of the
mass of the much more massintensive protonneutron ST unit, than a key
ingredient in Big Bang cosmology and subsequent atomic, molecular and galactic
formation has been revealed. Then the singularity where all time and all space,
and thus all mass/energy, are confined would in effect be massless, or become
massless, as ultrahigh energy photons, perhaps generated by the symmetry break
of the Higgs particle, explode outward. Any massive particles formed early on
would not only be annihilated by their antiparticle, but would be made
massineffective, thus enhancing the inflationary expansion mode. Massive ST
units could be homogenously distributed along with radiation. Then when the
critical cooling temperature is approached (3000^{0}K) by this
expansion, there would be the sudden appearance of the concealed mass, and
clumping of matter would be instigated. Atomic clumping with subsequent photon
absorption primes the clumping process for now the expansion of the electrons
in the atom, while losing a small amount of mass expression, ties up some of
the energetic photons, thus breaking some of the expansive nature of the
photons on the universe at large. Mass takes over radiation as the principle
domain of energy. Atoms become the seeds from which stars grow, as the cycle is
repeated in stellar evolution.
Supernova explosions would mean that in addition to
the loss of the radiant pressure that kept the star from gravitational
collapse, now the remaining matter will have less massconcealment by photons
and thus is more gravitationally active. Perhaps singularities are where the
potential mass of all matter present is completely neutralized by very high energy,
massconcealing photons. A temporary equilibrium in which the Higgs state is
reached in which there is no mass, no charge, no spin. The infinity problem
associated with these singularities is thus resolved. The universe is closed,
oscillating form this, or approaching this, singularity state to that of
maximum expansion.
Mass becomes the presentation of a certain amount of
directionallydependent ST, and it may be neutralized, at least temporarily, by
photon absorption. While mass is a vector which varies with ST extension and is
ultimately derived from the intrinsic momentum, that is the momentum associated
with its pulse generation, of the ST unit.
Because there are so many photons to electrons in
the universe, it is quite conceivable that most electrons have some of their
mass hidden by some photon, most of the time. In fact, spontaneous decay of an
electron in an excited state is probably the result of it being hit by another
appropriate photon (stimulated emission of photons). This means the universe is
expanding at least in part because the mass of the electrons are hidden, the
gravitational pull lessened and the actual ST presence of the electron
wavelength is enlarged. Perhaps the proton/neutron has a similar interaction
with photons of the proper energy.
Most of the time any photon hits an electron the
reaction is instantaneous and any mass changes of the electron are very brief.
Expansion of the electrons orbit only occurs by decreasing its mass and
frequency of presentation, thus increasing its wavelength, and only spectral
photons whose energies will put the electrons in a higher excited state in
accordance to the inverse square law, are allowed. Collapse of the excited
orbit results in photon emission, and the electron gains back its weight.
Charge remains constant and integral throughout because it is dependent on the
1^{0} pulse generation at c=λv, and not the 2^{0}, 3^{0},
4^{0}, 5^{0} pulse forms. All these latter massrelated forms
are at the constant velocity of c/137 and respective frequencies of v/137. The
pulse generation velocities of the electron are not to be confused with the net
linear motion of a free electron. Freely moving electrons are subject to the
massincreaseswithvelocityrelativity effects.
During the Big Bang era, very highenergy photons
would have concealed more mass, allowing for greater inflationarytype of
expansion steps to occur, and now in the modern era with a background radiation
of 3^{0}K, expansion, though still occurring, is slow and steadily
decreasing. The massconcealment rate of the photons is decreasing with time.
[Author’s note 121008: Evidence for the
INCREASED expansion of the universe, first discovered independently in 1998 by
Saul Perlmutter of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and, Brian
Schmidt of the Australian National University, has accumulated since LUFE was
written in 1985. Most of the evidence for this phenomenon, referred to as Dark
Energy, is based on measurements of light patterns from similar Type 1a
supernova. The further out they looked, the fainter
and redder these “standard” light objects became, indicating an expansion (Redshifting) of the wavelengths. This has been interpreted as an increasing expansion of the Universe.
A recent article in the New York Times “Dark, Perhaps Forever” by Dennis Overbye does an excellent job of presenting the current dilemma …the big question …of the theoretical physics community to the general public. Jonathan Corum provides the clear graphic, with NASA’s Space Telescope Science Institute as the source. Highly recommended. (www.nytimes.com/2008/06/03/science/03dark.html?_r=1)
It is pertinent to our discussion here that the very same processes that are involved with the basic atom …absorption and release of spectral photons by the electron occurring through actual variation in its mass can contribute to the discussion of Dark Energy. The expansion of wavelengths (Redshifting) increases with distance, and thus time. The further away one looks, the further back in time ones sees, and the further back, the closer one is to the effects of the inflationary expansion of the Universe that was the beginning of the end of the radiationdominated era. The first Type 1A supernova that could, and did, form after inflation had their “local” ST continuum stretched (inflated) relative to all the subsequent “local” ST continuums that sequentially followed. Conservation of ST = Conservation of Energy. As the inflationary era was unfolding, the massconcealment by the photons was diminishing resulting in the increased clumping of the energy into matter (atoms, stars, galaxies). At the beginning of this, the earliest …and thus furthest matter out there …was forming in relatively more expanded ST than the matter that clumped together thereafter. When we look at that light from that earlier period it looks redder, more expanded, because it is …it fulfilled it normal expression of atoms, stars and galaxies in an expanded ST …expanded relative to our rather contracted ST which followed. Conservation of ST demands that the expanded ST out “there” be balanced (compensated if you will) with contracted ST “here.” The photon, and graviton, bosons are the messengers of that compensatory change …and the Higgs boson is the ultimate interface, or gateway, which parents the balance sheet of accountability across the entire ST continuum.
Fractal Nature of the Universes
§=Singularity
↓wavelengthswavelengths↑
↑Energy Energy
density Density↓
         
↑PMC PMC↓
↑RadiationradiationmatterMatter↑
Era decoupling era Era
PMC=Photon Mass Concealment
Figure 7b. In this generic version of the ST continuum
over the lifespan of the Universe, the radiation era is characterized as being
in a state of very high energy density (initially) and is composed almost
entirely of fields (radiation). This supersaturation of photons would have
concealed most of the mass of the electrons (and possibly the protons/neutrons
as well). This brief period lead to the inflationary expansion of the Universe
at large as the ST continuum becomes expanded. Electrons (and presumably
protons/neutrons) are also expanded by this photon mass concealment. A phase
change occurs as the rapid expansion leads to the decoupling of the photons
from the electrons (and protons/neutrons) and the latter regain much of their
inherent mass expression. Overtime, this decoupling continues to greater and
greater degrees forming the electron (and proton/neutron) masses that we
measure today as their rest mass. See Figure 7c. for a graphic depicting how
relative this degree of expansion and decoupling is to a privileged observer.
(click for larger image)
Figure 7c. The further one looks back in time, the greater the ST expansion, relative to “now”, and the more a Type 1a Supernova will be redshifted.
The ST continuum, mediated by the Higgs boson through its surrogates, the photon and graviton, is both created and therefore a manifestation of its energy …its matter and fields …and as such, is dynamic.
Once we recognize that it is flexible …subject to fluctuations based on the current energy expression …we can see that some of our previous assumptions on the nature of the visibly “seen” Universe may have to be discarded …along with, in some cases, the conclusions based on those assumptions.
One such assumption, is that the idea that a given startype supernova would provide a “standard candle” …or energy footprint …for all viewers at all times and all locales. This is simply not true.
The “standard candles” that burned in the very early Universe shortly after inflation will not give an energy footprint that is the same as one nearby and relatively more recent. It will have been formed during …in the context of …the rapidly expanding ST continuum of postinflation. Its candle would naturally be fainter and redder as its wavelengths would all be energetically shifted to longer wavelengths …as compared to “standard candles” from all the way back there to here.
Ok, so now that we know the cause of the redshifting …initial rapid expansion of the ST continuum, postinflation …what does that tells us about the current situation …and our notion of Dark Energy? Is the Universe still expanding at an accelerated rate the further out and back in time you go …beyond the expansion it already went through?
I believe the answer is yes …as long as there is contraction in the ST continuum occurring elsewhere to balance this expansion.
While the photons contribute to the expansion (and some contraction) of ST, the gravitons focus on its contraction. They are the mediators of the Dark Matter. Dark Matter is simply contracted, highdensity ST. It is always balanced by the expanded, lowerenergy ST …that which we call Dark Energy.
The Conservation of ST, mediated by the perfect symmetry, masslesschargelessspinless Higgs boson, in effect means that:
Dark Matter = Dark Energy (the inverse of)
or
1 = ST continuum
The fractal nature of the Universe …revealed from
the quarks to the atoms, from the stars to the black holes …means that there
will be numerous “anomalies” of relative energy densities …or the lack of …as
the interference patterns of the subsystems of the Higgs, graviton and photon
bosons cross paths …forming high, low and neutral points of interest throughout
our Universe (Suns corona, “Big Void”, Dark Energy, Dark Matter).
It’s back to “DarkDarkLight”]
In closing, a final look at the inverse square law
is in order as I would suggest that a very fundamental relationship between
space and time is described by this law. Limitations of space and time for this
expose` require that only the briefest of introductions to this new type of
conceptual mathematics be presented.
The gist of it all is the reduction of basic,
fundamental physical attributes of nature to common units of so much space and
time presented in matrix form and referred to as the LUFE Matrix. Spatial
parameters are presented horizontally, temporal parameters vertically, each in
exponential form. Multiplication requires addition of the exponential forms,
division their subtraction. Addition or subtraction result in no change of the
exponential.
Space and time are perpendicular to each other. On
the matrix, complexity increases diagonally starting at the upper left corner.
Where does the inverse square law come in?
It is in the way in which the matrix is built. Each
spatial exponent (λ^{1}, λ^{2}, λ^{3} …)
extends completely up and down, and each temporal exponent extends completely
across its horizontal. Now it is only in the dynamic area where the two
exponents, spatial and temporal, cross (intercept) that define spacetime
parameters like energy, mass, momentum, etc. and because of this manner of
interaction, the matrix builds complexity exactly as in the inverse square law,
especially when visualized as the summation of the oddnumber series as
described before.
Let’s start simple, c=λv. Frequency is the
reciprocal of elapsed time (v=1/T_{e}), so for c=λv, we see that
in terms of spacetime, that equals λ x 1/T_{e}=λ/T_{e}
or cm/sec. Visually it is expressed as the intercept of the λ column with
the v (or 1/T_{e}) row, to produce the first square on the matrix, c.
See Fig. 7a.[above]
Just as in the inverse square law, c^{2} may
be seen to be that area occupied by the intercept of two units of λ,
λ^{2}, and two units of time or frequency, v^{2} (or 1/T^{2}_{e}).
c^{2}=λ^{2}v^{2}=cm^{2}/sec^{2}.
Notice that c^{2} occupies four squares. c^{3}=λ^{3}v^{3}
and so on.
Thus the c, c^{2}, c^{3}, c^{4},
c^{5} series, all of which are symmetrically formed of equal amounts of
space per time for each exponent, builds up as the area within the matrix that
each individual parameter describes is squared. Thus 1^{2}=1, 2^{2}=4,
3^{2}=9, 4^{2}=16, 5^{2}=25. It is the asymmetrical
amounts of space and time units which gives rise to many of the basic
attributes, ie. mass, energy, p, h, etc.
The value of the LUFE Matrix includes at least the
following:
1.)
Foremost is the concept that spacetime is the
fundamental constituent of nature, more complex physical attributes such as
energy, Planck’s constant, mass, charge, momentum, etc. are built of spacetime
constituents.
2.)
Spacetime=c, the velocity of light, and since
c=λv, then the whole matrix may be skewed in any frame of reference under
consideration according to the λ or v. When the λ are long, the v is
short and the whole matrix and the values it contains, will be skewed
horizontally, at the expense of verticality, and vice versa for short wavelengths.
This reflects and reaffirms the tenets of Special Relativity.
3.)
The tenets of Quantum Mechanics are also reflected
in several ways; a.) the various forms of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
can be seen, ΔpΔx≥h/2π, ΔEΔt≥h/2π,
ΔEΔ1/v≥h/2π and
b.) energy comes in chunks of Planck’s constant per unit of time, as E=hv.
4.)
The tenets of classical physics which remain valid
in the modern physical view of nature are equally valid in the LUFE Matrix.
Thus concepts like watts=volts times amps, or pressure=force per unit area, or
momentum=mass times velocity, etc. are readily accounted for and easily
visualized as they are built of common units of space and time.
5.)
The ability to predict, one of the foremost goals of
science, is enhanced by this conceptualization.
[Author’s note: The
tenets of General Relativity are also upheld by the LUFE Matrix …indeed the
conceptualizations of Albert Einstein go to the heart of the how and why LUFE
came to be.]
If we look at the 2^{0}, 3^{0}, 4^{0}
and 5^{0} ST forms of the electron in terms of the force of gravity, we
see that the force does indeed fall off inverse squarely with the distance for
the electron ST forms. Naturally, the force of electromagnetism, dependent only
on the 1^{0} ST form, is constant for each 2^{0}, 3^{0},
4^{0} and 5^{0} ST form. Indeed, it can be said that it is do
to the nature of the pulse propagation into these 2^{0}, 3^{0},
4^{0}, and 5^{0} ST forms, and the ST matter waves that each
radiates, that the force of gravity follows the inverse square law. See Fig.
8.[in the paper]
[Parts excerpted
from “Dark Matter = Dark Energy”]
Conservation
of Force (from part II)
F_{attraction
= }F_{repulsion}
(Conservation of Force)
·
Picture a
crosssection through the ST continuum where the curvature of ST is represented
by vertical lines. In the middle, which also would represent ideal, boring ST
the lines would be perfectly vertical and evenly spaced. Towards the increasing
massenergy density on our left, the lines would increasingly curve towards the
left as the spacing between the lines also decreases in progression, depicting
what effectively becomes the gravitationally positive "missing mass",
or dark matter. Towards the right where the massenergy density progressively
thins out, the vertical lines become spaced further and further apart, and,
become increasingly curved to the right, depicting what effectively becomes the
negative or antigravity of the dark energy. The image is not far removed from
the common image of iron filings in the presence of the opposite poles of a
magnet, i.e. a magnetic field.
·
Expansion and
contraction are relative concepts…because of the relativity of ST. If ST
consists of all the Planck h units and all the Planck h units
times all their frequencies of presentation equals a constant Total Energy, E_{T},
then there can be no net expansion or contraction of the universe…only that of
one occurs at the expense of the other. The more contraction force is expressed
here, the more the expansion force is expressed there. E = hν will
not allow it any other way. The universe…and ST…is expanding at an accelerated
rate if viewed from a relatively high ST contraction position.
·
It is very
helpful to think of ST as space/time, or simply as distance (displacement) per
unit of time (or frequency):
λ /t = λ ν .
·
All ST
manifests itself as mass or massenergy (matter or fields). All ST exists as
pulses, at a given frequency related to their energy, of Planck's unit of h,
and the energy of any such ST existence is
E = hν .
·
Mass, as
matter, represents an asymmetry in a given ST parameter (an attribute which
generally limits its mobility, but also provides for net expressions of the
charge vector, whether +, , or 0; and, the spin, or intrinsic angular
momentum, vector).
·
Massenergy,
as a field, represents the relatively symmetrical expression of the ST (an
attribute which allows for its lack of mass, lightspeed mobility, neutrality of
the charge vector, and gauge boson behavior, i.e. the spin vector is always
paired, resulting in only net integral spins of 0, 1 or 2). It is relatively
symmetrical, and not absolutely symmetrical. The Higgs Boson represents the
absolute symmetry, the progenitor of the ST field. Breaking the symmetry of the
Higgs Boson generates the relatively symmetrical ST field mentioned above, which
can itself form, through further symmetry breaking, the matter field, a.k.a.
the mass expression.
·
This
relatively symmetrical ST field mimics in every way the massless, chargeless,
spin = 1 photon, whose λ and ν are always reciprocally related to
insure that the velocity of light, equals the fundamental constant of nature:
c = λ ν .
Higgs* 
ST field 
Photon 
Matter 
Graviton 

mass 
0 
0 
0 
+** 
0 
charge 
0 
0 
0 
+//0 
0 
spin 
0 
± 1 
± 1 
± 1/2 
± 2 
*fundamental difference to Standard Theory is duly
noted
**mass of the neutrino family of leptons is still
unknown
Table I. Comparing the mass, charge and spin
of lepton/quark fermion matter to that of its surrounding, nonnuclear field
gauge bosons.
·
Two photons (spin = 1) interfere to form the
graviton (spin = 2).
·
Photons consist of two spin 1/2 (fermion) units
aligned such that their mass and charge vectors are equal and opposite, whereas
the spin angular momentum vectors point in the same circular direction and thus
are additive, as 1/2 + 1/2 = 1.
·
Gravitons consist of two or more photons at the
point of constructive interference(s), i.e. the spin 1 of each photon is in the
same direction and thus additive, to give spin = 2.
·
Higgs Boson consists of two photons with absolute
symmetry in that their mass, charge and spin vectors are all equal and opposite
and thus net spin = + 1/2 + 1/2 = 0; charge = +1 + 1 = 0; and, mass spin = 0.
Two opposite spin interfering photons will thus form a Higgs Boson, as will two
opposite spin gravitons.
·
The high curvature of ST in the presence of
mass/massenergy is then a relative curvature, borrowing from a fixed, constant
pool of Total Energy, E_{T}, thus assuring that the velocity of
light remains constant. The Conservation of ST Curvature = the Conservation of
Force = the Conservation of the Velocity of Light = the Conservation of
Momentum (Linear and Angular) = the Conservation of Energy. Each conservation
exists, not as independently conserved parameters, but rather as the interconnectedness
of ST from simple to multiple dimensions. The interplay between the rate of
Planck pulse unit of h, and the symmetry/asymmetry orientation of
its component vectors, defines the net expression of charge, mass, spin and the
resultant mobility of the entire ST field, whether of mass or massless energy.
The fundamental building block of that interplay is that of the simplest
expression of ST, c, the velocity of light, as
λ
ν .
·
It is conceptually key to note how important the
role of asymmetry is in defining the parameters of matter…like charge, mass,
momentum and spin (angular momentum), and of course energy, as we can see in
the LUFE Matrix. It is a similar asymmetry that structurally gives the vectors
of matter, fields and their force moderating bosons, their net expression of
such mass, charge and spin, as well as velocity and ultimately their energy
signature. At the same time, in other ST entities, the near perfect symmetry of
similar vectors results in other particles having zero net expression of mass
and charge, while demonstrating only integral (additive vectors of 1/2)
expressions of spin (i.e. photons, gluons and gravitons with spins of 1, 1 and
2, respectively). Perfect symmetry being the sole guest of the Higgs boson
(massless, chargeless, and spinless in its ideal state, but with the full
potential to break its perfect symmetry and form any ST entity, be it matter or
field).
(click
to enlarge image)
In Figure 8., a simplified LUFE Matrix is
laid out with λ and ν axis on the left and with S and 1/T axis on the
right.
·
The physical parameters are laid out in parallel
diagonal rows, becoming a little more asymmetrical to space and time dimensions
as they become removed from the midline.
·
Velocity, mass/momentum, charge, and spin become the
primary fingerprints, or ID, which fundamentally define the energy signature of
any ST matter or particle. These are the same parameters that inform the Conservation
Laws.
·
All of this is set in the context of the forces of
interaction. Conventional wisdom of the Standard Theory accounts for four such
forces. Gravity, by far the weakest of the four, is moderated by the graviton, gg , gauge boson while
electromagnetism is moderated by the photon, g ,
gauge boson. The weak force of nuclear decay, or interaction, is moderated by
the W and Z gauge bosons, while the strong nuclear force is moderated by a set
of color charged gluon gauge bosons. It is becoming abundantly clear that the
fifth force is that of the ST field, a.k.a. the Higgs field, which is the
ideal, perfect symmetry and multipotential generative field in which all other
matter and fields are contained and expressed in. It is moderated by the Higgs
boson, H.
Ultimately, all force fields are conserved in the same way that all energy is.
(click
to enlarge image)
Table II. Comparison of first generation
elementary particles with their force carrying gauge and nongauge bosons
(mesons).
·
In Table II we see that each parameter is the net
expression of the individual ST units (lepton or quark fermions or photonlike
gauge bosons) which composed it. Each of these is subject to conditions of
symmetry or asymmetry within which accounts for that net expression.
·
Think of it this way. The Higgs boson represents the
exchange particle defining the Higgs field. It is massless, chargeless and
spinless. The ST units that define these three primary fingerprint ID
parameters are capable of existing in either symmetrical or asymmetrical sets.
Sets are composed of individual vector components such that a set of two equal
but opposite (mass, charge or spin) vectors will result in a net symmetrical
expression of zero. If the vectors are instead, lined up additively, then the
result is a net asymmetrical expression of mass, charge and/or spin. For
example, two up quarks with charge +2/3 combined with 1 down quark with charge
1/3 gives a net asymmetrical expression of charge +1 (as in the proton).
Likewise, one up +2/3 plus 2 down 1/3 charges for the neutron result in a net
symmetrical charge expression of zero.
·
Thus the Higgs boson represents that state where the
mass, charge and spin vectors (contained within the ST units forming it) are
each lined up to point in equal but opposite directions to give a net symmetrical
expression of 0, 0, and 0, respectively.
·
Break the symmetry of the spin vector, changing it
from equal and opposite, to additive, and you now have the graviton at mass 0,
charge 0 and spin 2. The graviton is actually composed of two spin 1 photons that
are constructively added together (i.e. positive interference construction).
More on this shortly.
·
The photon, once again, represents the fundamental
dynamic dimensional ST particle that has mass 0, charge 0 and spin 1. It is
symmetrical in two vectors (mass and charge), but asymmetrical in spin (which,
along with zero mass, accounts for its net lightspeed velocity with each ST
pulse).
·
To note is that all spin on any particle can point
in one of two opposite directions and therefore you can have net expressions of
spin that are equal and opposite, i.e. lefthanded and righthanded. Likewise,
i.e. the photon, you can have left and righthanded spin 1 states (or
counterclockwise and clockwise if you're riding the photon).
·
So going up the particle ladder, we have photons
which have asymmetrical spin 1 vectors which can spin additively in one of two
directions, say either clockwise, Ck, or counterclockwise, CCk. Now if two Ck
photons constructively interfere, they generate (momentarily) a graviton with spin
2 (Ck). Likewise, two CCk photons can generate a graviton with spin 2 (CCk).
However, a Ck photon interfering with a CCk photon will generate a spin 0, mass
0, charge 0 Higgs boson.
·
Because bosons can, unlike spin 1/2 fermions, exist
in the same quantum place and time simultaneously, they can and do readily
interfere with each other as they radiate out from their source. In so doing
they form a true and perfect interference pattern when they are of the same
energy (c=l n , E=hn ),
or a less perfect pattern when they encounter photons of different energies. It
is these spontaneously generated, yet transient, constructive and destructive
interferences that generate the elusive graviton and Higgs boson particles.
Because the photons pass through each other, the transient pattern at one ST
location is repeatedly regenerated in each ST upon which it encounters another
photon. The evolving ST field of photons, gravitons and Higgs bosons is thus
selfsustaining and indeed actually does define the ST. But there is more.
·
All energy is gravitationally active. Our photon,
graviton, Higgs boson ST field is both selfsustaining and gravitationally
active. The greatest energy is located at the points of constructive
interference (which we will arbitrarily designate as spin 1 Ck + spin 1 Ck =
spin 2 Ck) and destructive interference (therefore, spin 1 CCk + spin 1 CCk =
spin 2 CCk). This then presumes the least active gravitational energy at the
nodes (i.e. spin 1 Ck + spin 1 CCk = spin 0) …the state of the Higgs boson.
·
(Here we have to be careful. The spin vector defines
the angular momentum of the particle and appears to be the drive energy for its
movement. Therefore, gravitons with spin 2 (either Ck or CCk) will move with
velocity of spin 1 photons or perhaps faster at 2c, or maybe they are at
c^{2} and act like a potential difference to their surrounding
ST. Similarly, perhaps the spin 0 Higgs boson loses its mobility as the spin
vector becomes symmetrical. Does it also lose its gravitationally active and
associated energy until it decomposes back into its equal but opposite spin 1
photons? On the other hand, the Higgs boson nodal state may remain a relatively
static, but gravitationally active ST focal point with all sorts of
consequences.
·
Going down the ladder, photons also can, through
further symmetry breaking, decompose, or deresonate, into any of the particles
which we associate with matter, i.e. leptons like the electron and neutrino or
the quarks forming the proton, neutron, and meson, to name a few. In each case,
whether generating spin 1/2 series fermions or spin 1 series bosons, there is
further breakage of the symmetry allowing for different vector sets of mass,
charge and spin to transform into the characteristic matter particles.
·
The photon acts as a gateway particle between matter
and fields. The velocity of light, c, is always, in its net expression,
constant and is by its nature of defining the fundamental dynamic dimensional
ST unit, the conservator of ST itself. Its equal but opposite set of charge vectors
guarantees that any charged particles created from its symmetry break will
always have a net expression of either 0 or some interval of 1. The photon and
the velocity of light are the chief accountants of the universe.
·
The photon may also generate matter when interfering
with the right number of other photons, gravitons and or Higgs bosons. With
appropriate energy signatures to allow for a symmetry break from the ST field
to ST matter.
·
If ST fields can become matter, can matter phase
back into fields? Yes of course, as has already been known for close to a
century now. Matter plus antimatter equals photons. But how can matter, plain
matter, generate ST fields without annihilating itself in the process?
Generating gravitational active ST fields as communicated with the graviton?
Let's see how as we summarize all this next.
From
dark to dark to light (from IV)
·
In Part I, the Conservation of Force was called
upon, as it follows naturally from the Conservation of Energy, Momentum,
Angular Momentum, and ultimately, from the Conservation of ST itself, to
elucidate the expansion of the universe. The dark, negative energy of the
vacuum of space (Cosmological Constant) invoked by others to explain a simple
geodynamic balance of ST forces. While the search for the mysterious form of
dark matter gravitation has literally obscured the other end of that balance.
We have instead invoked a fresh approach that connects the dark matter with the
inverse of the dark energy (or vice versa).
·
In Part II, the LUFE Matrix (a brief
introduction) was called upon to further elaborate on the nature of spacetime,
matter and fields, and the dynamic dimensional ST parameters that it defines.
Here we more clearly see the interrelationships between the parameters,
especially the key role that symmetry and/or asymmetry plays in the net
expression of certain vectordefined ST parameters such as mass, charge and
spin. Here one see how the ST field, as defined by the massless, chargeless
photons, gravitons and Higgs bosons which make it, becomes the multidimensional
fluid out of which condensates of matter are formed. Some of that matter
condensate remains as bosons, and as such can coexist with other bosons in the
same state, as well as acting as communication/exchange messengers between the
fermions and other bosons. Most of the other known matter condensate is indeed
the leptons and quarks. The quarks make up the fermions like the proton and
neutron, as well as the lesser bosons like the pion and kaon mesons.
·
By itself, all such matter condensate only accounts
for some 4% of the gravitational influence that surrounds any such matter
congregation. Clearly, there is a need to account for the presence of the other
96% gravitational activity. Likewise, in the furthest and oldest reaches of the
universe, we find what appears to be the opposite phenomenon…accelerated
expansion of ST itself bereft of a causative agent, acting as though space is
itself pushing things, matter, away…in effect a negative force, or energy,
acting like some form of antigravity.
·
Both phenomena can be explained with a single
geodynamic view of ST as the primary structure of the universe that is manifest
in real time and in real space. ST is the interface between the vacuum or
subspace universe, that which lies below the Planck Event Horizon, and real
space and time, that as we know as our universe. As the primary structure
between the two universes it plays an absolutely critical and defining role as
to the disposition, expression, fate and ultimate conservation of all those
elements we can experience in our universe. ST is the gatekeeper of our
universe. The matter and fields that are contained within the ST fall short of
accounting for our entire universe precisely because they are but a part, and a
relatively small part at that, of our entire universe. The true Conservation
Laws of Lightspeed, Charge, mass, Mmomentum, Spin Angular Momentum, Energy that
we are so familiar with, are really just parts, subsets, of the overall true
conservation...that of the Conservation of ST. Conservation of ST leads to and
explains all the other Conservation Laws, and, with the help of the LUFE
Matrix, helps us see that there are a number of other Conservation Laws
embedded therein, including the Conservation of Force. Newton has always had it
right when he states that for every action there is an equal and opposite
reaction. This is more than a statement about the Conservation of Momentum and
Energy. Momentum per second equals force. Energy per distance unit equals
force. Power divided by c equals force. The Conservation of Energy,
which is parsed into units of momentum to prove the Conservation of Mmomentum,
can also be parsed into units of force to reveal its conservation. It is
because energy (especially in the form of energy/sec or power) is at the top of
the ST dynamic dimensions heap (at 5 units, or 10 conventional spacetime units
of 5 units of S + 5 units of T) that all other parameters below are indeed
conserved. If you skew the matrix, you skew the energy and all the parameters
that support it. Yet you cannot screw the matrix. Let's see why.
·
ST pulses. It pulses into and out of our
"ordinary reality". From the vacuum of space, that which is really
the continuum on the other side of the Planck Event Horizon, ST as matter and
ST as field pulse into and out of existence. Pulsing into existence, ST must
always meet certain stringent accounting requirements (which we have discovered
to be the Conservation Laws).
o The
net speed of light, c, will always be constant.
o The
net charge expression shall always be 0 or whole integers (1, 1, …).
o The
net spin expression shall always be 0 or whole integers for bosons, and half
integer multiples for fermions.
o There
can be no net + or  expressions of charge without mass (mass is intimately
related with the charge vector).
o The
Conservation of Energy (E = hν ) is inviolate, as the total power
(energy/sec) of our universe is constant.
·
All ST units, matter and field alike, must strictly
account to these requirements. This is accomplished by building the ST pulses
as sets of ST unit pulses which have simple vector expression polemics (i.e.
onoff, clockwisecounterclockwise, updown, inout, yinyang, etc.) built into
them so that equal and opposite vector symmetries cancel out and vector
asymmetries add up to net expressions. (Quarks, which do not have a net
expression by themselves…asymptotic freedom…as they never exist alone, have
charge vectors of ±
1/3 and ±
2/3, in a relationship in charge of 1:2. Net expression of ST matter units made
of three quarks, as in the proton and neutron baryons, and two quarks, as in
the form of a quark plus an antiquark in the mesons, still have a net
composite charge expression limited to whole integers, 0, 1, 1,….).
·
The vector expression itself is perhaps local to the
ST pulse or perhaps it is absolute to the vacuum continuum. Nevertheless, it is
modular and functions as a simple poleantipole switch. Together a coherent ST
pulse is formed whose energy is a constant and reproducible primary signature
of that ST unit. The restmass energy for any matter ST unit and the constancy
of c for any massless, field ST unit is without variance.
·
Pulsing from nothing to its full ST pulse expression
and back, ST units pulse or vibrate alive in many ways similar to that
described in string theory. It is entirely possible that during the pulse
generation individual vector components are actually formed at velocities
greater than c, but the net expression for c will always be
constant for the ST unit itself so formed.
·
At the full form of the ST pulse all its defining
mass, charge and spin parameters are fully realized. Thereafter, part of the ST
pulse energy collapses back onto itself and is reabsorbed into the
singularity/vacuum port from whence it came, readying itself for the next pulse
generation. A small part of that energy is given off as resonant matter
waves…what are really boson ST field waves.
·
It is these critically resonantmatter boson ST
waves, mimicking the energy footprint of the matter ST pulse unit which formed
them, which now continue outward into the mix of other ST pulses everywhere in
the universe. Naturally their density is highest next to their source and so
are the odds that they would constructively or deconstructively interfere with
their " siblings" to form gravitons nearby, decreasing as the inverse
square law dictates. These boson ST pulse waves act in every way like photons,
the great gatekeepers of the matterfield ST. They have energy and become even
more gravitationally active as they combine to become gravitons and Higgs
bosons. Eventually this energy becomes reabsorbed back into the continuum,
perhaps through the Higgs boson itself. As a ST nodal structure of perfect
symmetry (0 mass, 0 charge, 0 spin), the Higgs boson may indeed by the ultimate
gateway and gatekeeper between the vacuum continuum (below the Planck Event
Horizon) and ST. This then is the light. The 96% missing, dark matter is really
the ST field of photons (both ordinary and resonatematter), gravitons and
Higgs bosons.
(click
to enlarge image)
In Figure 9., elementary particles and
fundamental forces are laid out in a composite ST pulse unit(s) based on the
difference of the spin 1/2, 3/2 fermions, which do obey the Pauli Exclusion
Principle, and, the spin 0, 1, 2 bosons, which do not.
·
Bursting from the invisible Planck Event Horizon
below, into the ST matrix of the Higgs Boson Field and outward to realize their
full ST expression are the fermions and bosons. The fermions form the matter.
The bosons, most of which are massless and travel at c (excepting the
massive W/Z gauge bosons of the weak force and the mesons, like π
that facilitate nucleon transformations), are the main gauge force carrying
particle of the strong, electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational forces. The
Conservation of Force is mediated by the Higgs Boson ST Field, a force…the
fifth force…that is carried by, and thus defined by, the Higgs Boson.
(click
to enlarge image)
In Figure 10., the fermion field has been
rearranged. It now it sandwiched in between the gauge and Higgs Boson Fields.
It is organized now from spin 0 to spin 2.
·
Spin, which may principally account for net mobility
of any ST particle, is shown first at Spin 0, the Higgs Boson emerging from the
black hole depths at the Planck Event Horizon. The spin 1/2 vectors forming any
boson are cancelled out in their symmetrical arrangement in the Higgs Boson. It
most likely does not move. Spin 1/2 (or 3/2 quark composites of three spin 1/2
vectors lined up to point in the same direction) fermions gain increasing
mobility as their mass decreases in the third to first generations. Remember,
there is no net charge expression without accompanying mass expression, while
there can be the opposite, a massive ST unit with zero net charge. Asymmetry of
the charge and spin vectors is a requirement for net expression of these
parameters. The mass forming vector is not really a separate structural vector
in the same sense as the charge and spin vectors. Rather it is manifested as
the result of the particular combination(s) of the other two and in the end
acts just like a vector in the sense that if those combinations produce a
composite asymmetry mass is expressed (like a localized knot in the ST field).
When they produce a composite symmetry, like in the Higgs, gluon, photon and
graviton bosons, no mass is expressed and whatever asymmetry is present in the
spin vectors (like the spin 1 gluons and photons, and the spin 2 gravitons),
that spin energy now translates into 100% mobility with each ST pulse. The
Higgs Boson, with spin 0 and charge 0, is assigned a mass and mobility of 0
here to be fully consistent with this model. Its perfect symmetry has no net
expression mass, charge or spin. Nevertheless it has massenergy resulting from
the equal and opposite individual charge, spin (and mass) vectors. It spins in
place acting as the multipotential transformative gateway that all other ST
units are derived, and measured, from and return to. Through interference,
photons can become gravitons or Higgs Bosons. Interference of gravitons can
also regenerate Higgs. The accounting system for the Conservation Laws has come
full circle.
(click for larger image)
Figure
11. Conservation
of ST …the most fundamental constant of all …expresses itself by conserving the
multidimensions of which it is made. It begins with the initial pulse
generation of ST, generating from one dimension of space per one dimension of
time, establishing the velocity of light, c, the conservation of which, further
establishes the entire multidimensional ST continuum and all its encompassing
Conservation Laws.
Conclusion
The LUFE model of the Universe, while
incorporating most of the tenets of the “Standard Theory,” nevertheless stands
on its own redefinition …a redefinition that gives primacy to ST. ST is the
Universe …seen and not seen …visible and hidden. It is the ultimate conserved
entity. All other Conservation Laws …while reflecting this ST …are,
nevertheless, subservient to this one allencompassing law …the Conservation of
SpaceTime.
Conservation of ST …the most
fundamental constant of all …expresses itself by conserving the
multidimensions of which it is made. Figure 11.
First and foremost of these is c, the
velocity of light. Conservation of the Velocity of Light, via the photon, is
like the gatekeeper of the entire ST matrix …again, a matrix of multiple time
and space dimensions that generate the dynamics of the Universe upon their
interaction(s).
A big part of that interactional
dynamic sheds light on one of the fundamental questions of our day. What is the
nature of the hidden Dark Matter and Dark Energy? Indeed, are they two
different manifestations of the same “unseen” force?
The entire LUFE model says “yes” to the
latter and explains the former through the Conservation Laws …as a skewing of
the ST matrix itself. And through the revelation of “Mass
Variation in the Electron by Photon Absorption and The Inverse Square Law”
a key mechanism of atomic, stellar, galactic and universal evolution has been
described.
The mechanics of this process are so
intimately tied back to the fundamental pulsegenerating ST continuum …and the
energy matter and fields of which it is composed …that the term “Fractal Universe”
is emphatically not a misnomer.
The other Conservation Laws follow from
the lead of the photon. The mass, charge, momentum (linear and angular [spin]),
and energy of the matter and fields are simply played out expressions of this
ST …forming the ST continuum (=ST matrix).
Communication …or call it realization
and accountability …of this expression occurs through the exchange quanta …the
vector bosons of the Higgs, photon, graviton, gluon and W^{+/0}/Z^{0}
particles. As force mediators, it only follows that the net effect of their
actions of force must be in tune with the Conservation of ST. The Conservation
of ST is mediated through the Conservation of Force, via the Higgs boson and
its force mediating off spring, the exchange quanta.
This
paper and all its contents ©
2008, Reginald Brooks. All rights reserved. Permission is hereby granted for
single copies to be made for personal, noncommercial use for students and
teachers of schools, colleges and universities provided that: either the entire
paper, including figures and tables, is kept intact; or, any extracts of the
text, or figures or tables (in part or whole), be properly and visibly cited as
to authorship and source.
NEXT
Chapter on LUFE
or
NEXT: On to Page 5a DarkDarkLight: Dark Matter = Dark Energy
Back to Naughty Physics (a.k.a. The LUFE Matrix )
________________________________________________________
The LUFE Matrix
Page 5a DarkDarkLight: Dark Matter = Dark Energy
Page 5b The History of the Universe in Scalar Graphics
Page 5c The History of the Universe_update: The Big Void
Page 6a Geometry Layout
Page 6b Geometry Space Or Time Area (SOTA)
Page
6c Geometry SpaceTime Interactional Dimensions(STID)
Page 6d Distillation of SI units into ST dimensions
Page 6e Distillation of SI quantities into ST dimensions
Page 7a The LUFE Matrix Supplement:
IntroductionLayout & Rules
Page 7b The LUFE Matrix Supplement: Examples and Proofs
Page 7c The LUFE Matrix Supplement: References
Page 8a The LUFE Matrix: Infinite Dimensions
Page 9 The LUFE Matrix:E=mc^{2}
Page
10a Quantum Gravity ...by the book
Page
11 The Conservation of SpaceTime
LUFE
Page
12a LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Preface, Table of Contents, and List
of Figures
Page
12b LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Chapter I: Symmetry of Design (Fields)
~sonata form~
Page
12c LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Chapter II: Introduction to the
Geometry
Of Interactions
~rhythms and
melodies~
Page
12d LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Chapter III: The Geometry of Elemental
Forms
~scales~
Page 12e LUFE: The
Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Chapter IV: The Geometry of Universal
Constants
~obstinate bass~
Page
12f LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Chapter V: The Geometry of
Intermediate Forms
~chords~
Page
12g LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Chapter VI: The Geometry of Change
~polyrhythms and polyphony
Page
12h LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Chapter VII: The Geometry of Paradox
~counterpoint~
Page
12i LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Chapter VIII: The Geometry of Large
Forms
~harmony~
Page
12j LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Appendix I:
Page
12k LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Appendix II: Fundamental Constants
Page
12k LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Appendix II: Fundamental Constants
~1. Mass: Mass Expression
Page
12l LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Appendix II: Fundamental Constants
~2. Ratios:Ratios of the Electron to the Proton
Page
12m LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Appendix II: Fundamental Constants
~3. Charge: Charge Expression
Page
12n LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Appendix II: Fundamental Constants
~4. LUFE Matrix: Common Units and The LUFE Matrix
Page
12o LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Appendix II: Fundamental Constants
~5. The Atom: Mass Variation in the Electron by Photon Absorption and The Inverse Square Law
Page
12p LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose
Acknowledgements and Bibliography
Copyright©200809
Reginald Brooks, BROOKS DESIGN. All Rights Reserved.